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  • 本站编辑:浙江金鸣环境科技有限公司发布日期:2019-09-30 12:56 浏览次数:

具有脱氮除磷功能的污水处理工艺仍是今后发展的重点

《城镇污水处理厂污染物排放标准》(GB18918-2002)对出水氮磷有明确的要求,因此已建城镇污水处理厂需要改建,增加设施去除污水中的氮、磷污染物,达到国家规定的排放标准,新建污水处理厂则须按照标准GB18918-2002来进行建设。

目前,对污水生物脱氮除磷的机理、影响因素及工艺等的研究已是一个热点,并已提出一些新工艺及改革工艺。如MSBR、倒置A2/O、UCT等,并且积极引进国外新工艺。对于脱氮除磷工艺,今后的发展要求不仅仅局限于较高的氮磷去除率,而且也要求处理效果稳定、可靠、工艺控制调节灵活、投资运行费用节省。目前,生物除磷脱氮工艺正是向着这一简洁、高效、经济的方向发展。

高效率、低投入、低运行成本、成熟可靠的污水处理工艺是今后污水处理厂的首选工艺

我国是一个发展中国家,经济发展水平相对落后,而面对我国日益严重的环境污染,国家正加大力度来进行污水的治理,而解决城市污水污染的根本措施是建设以生物处理为主体工艺的二级城市污水处理厂。

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但是,建设大批二级城市污水处理厂需要大量的投资和高额运行费,这对我国来说是一个沉重的负担。而目前我国的污水处理厂建设工作,则因为资金的缺乏很难开展,部分已建成的污水处理厂由于运行费用高昂或者缺乏专业的运行管理人员等原因而一直不能正常运行,因此对高效率、低投入、低运行成本、成熟可靠的污水处理工艺的研究是今后的一个重点研究方向。

对适用于小城镇污水处理厂工艺的研究

发展小城镇是我国城市化过程的必由之路,是具有中国特色的城市化道路的战略性选择。1978~2000年我国建制镇由2178个增至20312个,目前各种规模和性质的小城镇已近48000个。如果只注重大中城市的污水处理工程的建设,而忽视如此数量多的小城镇的污水治理,则我国的污水治理也不能达到预定目标。

而对于小城镇的污水处理又面对着一系列的问题:小城镇污水的特点不同于大城市;小城镇资金短缺;运行管理人员缺乏等。因此,小城镇的污水处理工艺应该是基建投资低、运行成本低、运行管理相对容易、运行可靠性高的工艺。目前对适用于小城镇污水处理厂工艺的研究方向是:从现有工艺中比选出适合小城镇污水处理厂的工艺,同时开发出适用于小城镇污水处理厂的新工艺。

对产泥量少、且污泥达到稳定的污水处理工艺的研究

目前,污水处理厂所产生的污泥的处理也是我国污水处理事业中的一个重点和难点,2003年中国城市污水厂的总污水处理量约为95.9562×108/a,城市平均污水含固率为0.02%,则湿污泥产量为965.562×104t/a,并且污泥的成份很复杂,含有多种有害有毒成分,如此产量大而且含有大量有毒有害物质的污泥如果不进行有效处理而排放到环境中去,则会给环境带来很大的破坏。

目前我国污泥处理处置的现状不容乐观:据统计,我国已建成运行的城市污水处理厂,污泥经过浓缩、消化稳定和干化脱水处理的污水厂仅占25.68%,不具有污泥稳定处理的污水厂占55.70%,不具有污泥干化脱水处理的污水厂约占48.65%。

这说明我国70%以上的污水厂中不具有完整的污泥处理工艺而对此问题进行解决的一个有效办法是:污水处理厂采用产泥量少、且污泥达到稳定的污水处理工艺控制工程网版权所有,这样就可以在源头上减少污泥的产生量,并且可以得到已经稳定的剩余污泥,从而减轻了后续污泥处理的负担。

目前,我国已有部分工艺可做到这一点,如生物接触氧化法工艺、BIOLAK工艺、水解-好氧工艺等,但是对产泥量少、且污泥达到稳定的污水处理工艺的系统研究还没有开始。

Wastewater treatment technology with nitrogen and phosphorus removal function is still the focus of future development

"Discharge standards of pollutants from urban sewage treatment plants" (gb18918-2002) has clear requirements on effluent nitrogen and phosphorus, so urban sewage treatment plants have been built to be rebuilt, increase facilities to remove nitrogen and phosphorus pollutants in sewage, to meet the discharge standards set by the state, new sewage treatment plants must be built in accordance with the standard gb18918-2002.

At present, the research on the mechanism, influencing factors and process of biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal in wastewater has become a hot topic, and some new and reformed processes have been proposed. Such as MSBR, inverted A2/O, UCT, and actively introduce new foreign technology. For nitrogen and phosphorus removal process, the future development requirements are not only limited to the higher nitrogen and phosphorus removal rate, but also requires the treatment effect to be stable, reliable, flexible process control and regulation, investment and operation cost saving. At present, the biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal process is developing towards this simple, efficient and economical direction.

High efficiency, low investment, low operating cost, mature and reliable sewage treatment process is the first choice of sewage treatment plants in the future

China is a developing country, the level of economic development is relatively backward, but in the face of increasingly serious environmental pollution in China, the country is stepping up efforts to sewage treatment, and the basic measure to solve urban sewage pollution is to build biological treatment as the main process of secondary urban sewage treatment plants.

However, the construction of a large number of secondary urban sewage treatment plants requires a lot of investment and high operating costs, which is a heavy burden for our country. And current sewage treatment plant construction work, because of the lack of funds, it is difficult to carry out part because of the high operation cost of sewage treatment plants have been completed or has been lack of professional operation and management personnel and other reasons can not run normally, so the high efficiency, low investment, low running cost, mature and reliable wastewater treatment technology research is a key research direction in the future.

Study on the technology applicable to small town sewage treatment plant


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